apple

小说:赚钱不容易作者:安侯丁更新时间:2018-10-20字数:75389

apple


Spring boot 是什么 ?

简单说, spring boot 是一个构建项目的工具, 一个脚手架.

Spring boot 能干什么?

spring boot 做非常少的配置就可以构建生产级别的单体应用.

Spring boot 怎么干的?

下面让我们来用spring boot 做一个hello world.

  1. 环境准备, 需要保证你的机器上已经有了如下软件

    • JDK1.8+
    • gradle4+
  2. 创建项目目录, 假设这个新的项目叫apple.

    $ cd /tmp
    $ mkdir apple
  3. 创建gradle配置文件,在这个目录下创建build.gradle文件.

    $ cd apple
    $ vi build.gradle

    将如下代码复制到build.gradle文件中.

    plugins {
        id "org.springframework.boot" version "2.0.1.RELEASE"
    }
    
    apply plugin: "java"
    apply plugin: "io.spring.dependency-management"
    
    repositories {
        mavenCentral()
    }
    
    dependencies {
        compile "org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web"
        testCompile "org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test"
        testCompile "org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-webflux"
    }
    
    bootRun {
        main = "com.thoughtworks.apple.Launcher"
    }
  4. 写一个Hello world.

    • 按照如下目录结构初始化项目内容
    apple
      -src
         -main
           -java
              -com.thoughtworks.apple
                  |-controller
                  |   -HomeController.java
                  -Launcher.java              
    • HomeController.java内容如下
    package com.thoughtworks.apple.controller;
    
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
    import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;
    
    @RestController
    public class HomeController {
        @RequestMapping("/")
        String home() {
            return "Hello World!";
        }
    }
    
    • Launcher.java内容如下
    package com.thoughtworks.apple;
    
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
    import org.springframework.boot.SpringBootConfiguration;
    import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.EnableAutoConfiguration;
    import org.springframework.context.annotation.ComponentScan;
    
    @SpringBootConfiguration
    @EnableAutoConfiguration
    @ComponentScan("com.thoughtworks.apple")
    public class Launcher {
        public static void main(String[] args) {
            SpringApplication.run(Launcher.class, args);
        }
    }
    
  5. 运行

    执行命令gradle bootRun启动应用,之后会打印如下日志:

    $ gradle bootRun
    
    > Task :bootRun
    
      .   ____          _            __ _ _
     /\ / ___"_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _    
    ( ( )\___ | "_ | "_| | "_ / _` |    
     \/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
      "  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
     =========|_|==============|___/=/_/_/_/
     :: Spring Boot ::        (v2.0.1.RELEASE)
    
    2018-05-05 10:23:41.383  INFO 38941 --- [           main] com.thoughtworks.apple.Launcher          : Starting Launcher on CNyfqi.local with PID 38941 (/private/tmp/apple/build/classes/java/main started by yfqi in /private/tmp/apple)
    2018-05-05 10:23:41.386  INFO 38941 --- [           main] com.thoughtworks.apple.Launcher          : No active profile set, falling back to default profiles: default
    2018-05-05 10:23:41.432  INFO 38941 --- [           main] ConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext : Refreshing org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.context.AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext@3b2c72c2: startup date [Sat May 05 10:23:41 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.289  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat initialized with port(s): 8080 (http)
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.313  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.apache.catalina.core.StandardService   : Starting service [Tomcat]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.313  INFO 38941 --- [           main] org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine  : Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/8.5.29
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.323  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener   : The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: [/Users/yfqi/Library/Java/Extensions:/Library/Java/Extensions:/Network/Library/Java/Extensions:/System/Library/Java/Extensions:/usr/lib/java:.]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.402  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.c.c.C.[Tomcat].[localhost].[/]       : Initializing Spring embedded WebApplicationContext
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.403  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.web.context.ContextLoader            : Root WebApplicationContext: initialization completed in 973 ms
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.522  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.ServletRegistrationBean  : Servlet dispatcherServlet mapped to [/]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.525  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: "characterEncodingFilter" to: [/*]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.526  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: "hiddenHttpMethodFilter" to: [/*]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.526  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: "httpPutFormContentFilter" to: [/*]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.526  INFO 38941 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.w.servlet.FilterRegistrationBean   : Mapping filter: "requestContextFilter" to: [/*]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.627  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**/favicon.ico] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.809  INFO 38941 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter : Looking for @ControllerAdvice: org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.context.AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext@3b2c72c2: startup date [Sat May 05 10:23:41 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.878  INFO 38941 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/]}" onto java.lang.String com.thoughtworks.apple.controller.HomeController.home()
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.884  INFO 38941 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error]}" onto public org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity<java.util.Map<java.lang.String, java.lang.Object>> org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.BasicErrorController.error(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest)
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.885  INFO 38941 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error],produces=[text/html]}" onto public org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.servlet.error.BasicErrorController.errorHtml(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest,javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse)
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.910  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/webjars/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
    2018-05-05 10:23:42.910  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
    2018-05-05 10:23:43.048  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter        : Registering beans for JMX exposure on startup
    2018-05-05 10:23:43.100  INFO 38941 --- [           main] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ""
    2018-05-05 10:23:43.105  INFO 38941 --- [           main] com.thoughtworks.apple.Launcher          : Started Launcher in 2.148 seconds (JVM running for 2.523)
    2018-05-05 10:24:03.416  INFO 38941 --- [nio-8080-exec-1] o.a.c.c.C.[Tomcat].[localhost].[/]       : Initializing Spring FrameworkServlet "dispatcherServlet"
    2018-05-05 10:24:03.416  INFO 38941 --- [nio-8080-exec-1] o.s.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet        : FrameworkServlet "dispatcherServlet": initialization started
    2018-05-05 10:24:03.436  INFO 38941 --- [nio-8080-exec-1] o.s.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet        : FrameworkServlet "dispatcherServlet": initialization completed in 20 ms
    <=========----> 75% EXECUTING [1m 28s]
    > :bootRun

    之后在浏览器中访问http://localhost:8080/ 能看到如下页面说明程序运行成功了.

进阶

如何将gradle命令引入项目

当我们本地有多个项目, 且每个项目的gradle版本不一样时, 我们就需要把gradle命令保存在项目内, 然后每个项目用自己的gradle来构建. 下面这个命令可以直接初始化引入一个gradle命令到项目内部.

$ gradle wrapper --gradle-version 4.0

之后项目目录下会多出四个文件

drwxr-xr-x   4 yfqi  wheel   128 May  5 10:49 .gradle
drwxr-xr-x   3 yfqi  wheel    96 May  5 10:49 gradle
-rwxr-xr-x   1 yfqi  wheel  5296 May  5 10:49 gradlew
-rw-r--r--   1 yfqi  wheel  2260 May  5 10:49 gradlew.bat

以后就可以在项目根目录下执行 ./gradlew来运行gradle的tasks了.

测试Hello World

程序成功运行了, 让我们来写一个测试用例测试一下hello world.

  • 测试目录结构如下

    apple
      -src
         |-main   
         -test
            -java
                -com.thoughtworks.apple.controller
                   -HomeControllerTest.java       
  • HomeControllerTest.java内容如下

    package com.thoughtworks.apple.controller;
    
    import org.junit.Test;
    import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
    import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
    import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
    import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
    import org.springframework.test.web.reactive.server.WebTestClient;
    
    @RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
    @SpringBootTest(webEnvironment = SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.RANDOM_PORT)
    public class HomeControllerTest {
        @Autowired
        private WebTestClient webClient;
    
        @Test
        public void should_get_home() {
            this.webClient.get().uri("/").exchange()
                    .expectStatus().isOk()
                    .expectBody(String.class).isEqualTo("Hello World!");
        }
    }
  • 运行测试使用命令./gradlew test能看到如下日志说明测试执行成功

    $ gradle test
    Starting a Gradle Daemon (subsequent builds will be faster)
    
    > Task :test
    2018-05-05 10:36:18.034  INFO 39291 --- [       Thread-6] ConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext : Closing org.springframework.boot.web.servlet.context.AnnotationConfigServletWebServerApplicationContext@918accb: startup date [Sat May 05 10:36:15 CST 2018]; root of context hierarchy
    
    
    BUILD SUCCESSFUL in 12s
    3 actionable tasks: 3 executed

打包部署

  1. 执行命令./grdlew bootJar来打包spring boot项目. 命令执行成功后会在apple/build/libs下多出一个jar包apple.jar.这就打包成功了.
  2. 把打包好的jar包复制到运行的服务器, 执行命令java -jar apple.jar &就可以把应用启动起来.

Spring Boot Starters

上面的例子大家会发现项目只是依赖了三个Spring Boot的Starter就完成了对所有第三方jar包的引用.Starter其实就是对第三方jar包依赖按照业务需要做了一个聚合,Spring Boot提供了大量的Starter来帮助开发人员快速开始构建项目, 降低了开发人员调包依赖的工作量.在这两个地址可以查看Spring Boot的所有的Starters.

  • https://docs.spring.io/spring-boot/docs/current-SNAPSHOT/reference/htmlsingle/#using-boot-starter
  • https://github.com/spring-projects/spring-boot/tree/master/spring-boot-project/spring-boot-starters

源码

文章的完整代码可以在这里找到: https://github.com/qyf404/learning-spring-boot

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发布时间:2018-10-20 08:45:37

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